the second half of October 2006 we visited Venice for the first time.
Our visit coincided unplanned with an international architectural
exhibition. What completely shocked me and what I could not get rid
off, was the content of a concise introduction by Richard Burdett :
"The 10th International Architecture Exhibition
Cities, architecture and society celebrates cities,
year that half the world's population has become urban. A century ago
only 10% of the people of the planet lived in cities and, according
to the United Nations, this number is set to rise to 75%." (2)
Later I learned through another source, that by 2030, two-third of
humanity will live in cities. (3)
planet earth's population || counted
billion ||in 2006
||9 billion ||in 2042 |
ascertains: "Understanding the impacts of this growth on people
and on the environment
has become a necessity, as the links between architecture and society
become both more complex and more fragile." That's the same way
I see it.
feel the need to collect and formulate some proper questions.
looks as if there consists a development-pattern of apparent
of cities; a perpetuum mobilae, that once being
always and for ever
move 'forward' and consequently never will stop or can be stopped.
live in an age of unprecedented, rapid, irreversible urbanization,",
a large city can be convenient and attractive in terms of provisions
health-care, entertainment, fashion-shopping, educations of sorts, a
of culture and food or in terms of employment and anonymity.
latter also being a candidate for nuisance, anonymity, discomfort and
ONGOING URBANIZATION UNAVOIDABLE ? |
HAVE UNLIMITED ENLARGEMENTS OF BIG CITIES, CENTRALIZATION
ALSO, A POINT-OF-NO-RETURN, AFTER
ADVANTAGES (and counter-productivity takes over) ?
me to mention some serious disadvantages, first on individual
level: always light /
again real silence / living & housing in the center is
in a suburb means daily long traveling hours / air and sound
billion people -a sixth of humanity- live in slums." (3)
administrative level: the costs of infrastructures
waste collecting and -disposal, distribution, but also a system
fire-fighting become disproportional high [read: unpayable and
and extremely vulnerable.
persons and authorities in larger cities nowadays already experience
THOSE CONDITIONS BEYOND ONE's HUMAN POWER ?
this sketchy introduction, I feel the urgency to find a [ -the- ]
'bottom~line' of an architect.
answer could be: making an 'adequate' and payable 'house'; the
definitions of the
not being clear.
prefer to concentrate on the following. Schematic I assume for
architects the existence
a dichotomy: either they 'follow' 'the'
eventually make the best out
each situation, O R architects show their [brilliant] capability to
box and make a plea for a rather different,
concept against the
the same dichotomy in the words of Paul Watzlawick c.s. (5)
WHAT IS THE BASIC RESPONSIBILITY AND FUNCTION OF
AN ARCHITECT ?
winter comes and the temperature begins to fall, rooms must be heated
and one must wear warm clothing outside in order to remain
comfortable. If the temperature falls even lower, more heat and warm
clothing are needed. In other words, change becomes necessary to
re-establish the norm, both for comfort and survival. (5)
p. 31. So
far so good, but what about the following, I would say realistic
situation: "(....), what could seem more reasonable to relatives
and friends than to try to cheer up a depressed person? But in all
likelihood the depressed person not only does not benefit from this,
but sinks deeper into gloom." p. 34. With
"more-of-the-same" is a kind of 'reflex', but does not
always work as intended -on the contrary- ! A counter-productive form
of problem solving enters the stage.
same is acting within the box, so to speak; in
terms this change-type is called "first-order". "(....),
there are countless instances in which this form of problem solving
and change provides a valid and satisfactory solution. In all these
cases the first-order change potential inherent in the system can
cope with the disturbance, and the system's structure remains
unchanged." p. 38. First-order changes
however also can be "(....) incapable of effecting the desired
change, because here the system's structure itself has to undergo
change, and this can be effected only from the second-order change
level." p. 38
a 'solution' of the more-of-the-same-type can become the problem
itself. Sometimes a solution is of a breathtaking simplicity (and
ARCHITECTS PRODUCING MORE-OF-THE-SAME OR ARE THEY
AND CAPABLE TO ENTER THE REALM OF IT's OPPONENT, THE
way out is through the door. |
Why is it that no one
will use this exit
[Confucius] p. 77
architect's contributions are variations on the already existing, the
True, roof gardens are made, buildings can be constructed more
attractive, space between buildings will be extended eventually,
in urban-planning, sound isolation is improved, designs are sometimes
materials funny or costly, buildings get the function of 'landmarks',
/ or hazardous than in other metropolis,
after all this category of 'creativity', swagger,
demonstration of power, guts,
taste or how you would like to call it, still remains
dare to say, that new variations within the existing order are
'changes' of the
and thus cannot be defined as renewal.
architects leaders, guides or followers. ?
the sake of an open and transparent dispute and debate I strongly
object the immanent assumption of uncritical [ ? ] 'accepting' the
ever growing metropolis' mega-sizes within the statement: "How
we choose to shape our cities, buildings and public spaces -as
architects, urbanists and city makers- will determine how we
respond to the challenges of climate change as well as addressing
human rights, justice and dignity for the billions of people who move
to cities in search of work and opportunity." (2)
|? ARE THERE
ANY ARCHITECTS WHO HAVE STRONGPOINTS -ON GOOD
GROUNDS- FOR DECENTRALIZATION AND
REASONS ARE THERE TO ENLARGE / EXTEND METROPOLIS
? WHAT IS A
HYPER METROPOLIS "DOING" TO PEOPLE, TO
is unprecedented in human's history, that more than one half of the
planet's population will live in 'hyper-cities' in near future.
What vocabulary, questions, mind set, 'psychology', 'sociology',
or 'morality' one needs to comment on this unique phenomenon.???????
What kind of judgment(s), conclusions and points-of-view are we going
What are the fundamentals ?
would like to say: please TELL ME ! TEACH ME !
|? HOW TO
UNDERSTAND THIS ?
am pretty convinced what we should NOT do, that is:
/ more-of-the-same / just making money,
way or the other,' après nous le déluge I
certain words as [UN]NATURAL, LIVING, ARTIFICIAL, EXISTENCE,
NATURE, need a minimum of description [signalement] if one
as the tower-of-Babel-saga did.
for instance is also decease, suffering and dying; 'ARTIFICIAL
is not only
mobile phone, but also my credit card [money anyhow] and our double
lacking a proper description ].., referring to 'metropolis'...
? How much adaptation-capability
we may expect from a human ?
How much noise, pollution [of what ?], concrete / glass /
steel, travel-time per day, crowds,
human can digest or reasonably handle in
medical-, biological and
/ or psychological terms ?
What is a house 6) ?
What is a city ?
being originally biological, nomadic creatures with straight lines to
animals, behaved 'unnatural' by covering their
temperature differences. They behaved 'unnatural' by
their nomadic existence: "The event that set humankind on the
path toward modernity was the adoption of farming, beginning with the
domestication of cereal grains, which first took place in the Near
East around ten thousand years ago (...)" (7) p. 2
behaved 'unnatural' some years later: "The first
civilizations arose around five thousand years later in Mesopotamia
and Egypt, two parallel cultures founded on a surplus of cereal
grains produced by organized agriculture on a massive scale. This
freed a small fraction of the population from the need to work in the
fields and made possible the emergence of specialist priests,
administrators, scribes, and craftsmen. Not only did beer nourish the
inhabitants of the first cities and the authors of the first written
documents, but their wages and rations were paid in bread and beer,
as cereal grains were the basis of the economy." p. 3
paragraph "the urban revolution" writes Standage, p. 24:
"The world's first cities arose in Mesopotamia, "the land
between the streams," the name given to the area between the
Tigris and Euphrates rivers that roughly corresponds to modern Iraq.
Most of the inhabitants of these cities were farmers, who lived
within the city walls and walked out to tend their fields each
morning. Administrators and craftsmen who did not work in the fields
were the earliest humans to live entirely urban lives. Wheeled
vehicles trundled through the matrix of city streets; people bought
and sold goods in bustling marketplaces. Religious ceremonies and
public holidays passed by in a reassuringly regular cycle."
continued on the 'unnatural''path. "Wine was the
lifeblood of this Mediterranean civilization [Greece], and the basis
of vast seaborne trade that helped to spread Greek ideas far and
wide." p. 3
wild time-leaps and jumping on different subjects: "Global
sea-routes were established, and European nations vied with one
another to carve up the globe." p.4 Cities
were established, slaves were traded, science developed as did
technology exponentially. Planet's population grew substantially,
notwithstanding massive exploitations of cultures, nations and
people, deceases and ever larger, more cruel wars, the recent ones
counting in millions of death.
reading in my daily about Ito-san's former thinking "(...) the
idea of an architecture for the "virtual" body - the
parallel self that lives on the incessant diet of electronic
information in the modern metropolis.", saying "(...) that
contemporary man was a "Tarzan who lives in a forest of media,"
and his architecture should be a form of "media-clothing".
(1) All together rather alienated, corny,
would-be-'artistic' in-crowd-jargon, in the clouds and triple-fake,
accepting hypes as a status quo and so called 'renewal'; exactly the
'new-clothes-of-the-emperor'. And the Tarzan-association: as a child
I saw the original one with Johnny Weismüller. He controlled,
helped, was smart, honest and powerful. That profile is by far not
the [poor] inhabitant's of a modern hyper-city. On the contrary !
Therefore I am happy to read in the same article, that Ito-san
replaced his weird thinking: "In this decade, however,
Ito has decisively swerved away from this path to re-engage the
forceful physicality of the structural and material dimension of
architecture. He has returned to the "real"."; the
journalist, commenting his recent projects as 'organic forms'. "Ito
feels this bodily pleasure that can be experienced via architecture
and space is being lost in the wholesale embrace or the virtual."
Ito-san gets my unconditional YES ! was when reading about a
being my catch at a straw and actually the lead in
little over 10 years, mobile phone technology and Internet technology
have changed things radically. I think that, without doubt, people,
especially young people, have lost a kind of 'rawness', a nama
feeling. I had originally hoped that by engaging with virtual
worlds, such as when playing computer games, a new and interesting
kind of sensibility would develop among people. However, in truth, I
soon began to feel a sense of betrayal. I concluded that the more
this virtualization occurs, the greater the need for the primitive
recovery of the "real" that is so new for Ito and his
successors suggests a yearning to reconnect to the sources of the
architect's art: material, structure, nature and, significantly,
people." May I say, that Ito-san re-invented humans ?
strongly doubt that today's metropolises are necessary for a number of
of my objections are economical! other motives concern efficiency,
health as well as aesthetics.
costs of living and / or working in a metropolis are sky high because
am not only referring to prices of ground, offices, houses and food,
but also to
nurseries, education and medical care. The same comment can be made
of materials and persons, infrastructures of sorts, maintenance, each
and in combination being pretty complicated. The complicated wheels
prove to be
delicate and vulnerable: if one small part dysfunctions, the whole
system will be
affected with a fair chance of stagnation of the whole machinery. A
counter-productive in terms of efficiency, because of it's high
costs, density and
On top of all this air- and sound pollution is omni-present,
functioning as a
attack on human's senses and the general condition in a metropolis;
is a common phenomenon. All in all an unhealthy incubator.
some architectural 'highlights', an average metropolis is ugly, far
too ugly. Designing is the expression of powerless bungling of the
human race [Abalos & Herreros] (8)
I take notice of the term architectural pornography in contrast
with this couple's wish to prickle the senses. Should an average
inhabitant be happy or feel lucky with Ando, who once defined
architecture as 'the box that provokes' ? I would like to add: a box
that provokes, irritates, intimidates or impresses for impressions
Architects are often the problem.
is often too static [Lynn]. Kroll opposes passionately the barbaric
modernity; the functional does not function anymore. I saw Ban
described as an over-average self-glorifier. Caruso St John: there is
little which one can admire.
Diversity is not beatific.
architecture's bottom line is boring, mannered and bombastic, a
vulgar, 'sexy', technical rhetoric, easy and selfish going and much
sought after,' an account of fashionable debacles, an embarrassing
embrace of the poorness, indifference and barbarian business ethics,
mould of pure disdain for humans, life and nature [this sharing with
many politicians and religions] in order to compensate their
primitive, cocky and misplaced vanities. Architects taking the main
stage with star airs, swapping extravaganza and gadgets with
substance and content -actually expressing professional laziness,
fear, a lack of fantasy and morality- , architects making empty,
intimidating, dull forms for form's sake, media randy, who glorify in
the mess of the postmodern city. However, iconic power can remain
incidental and renewal can be admirable but barely exiting.
an admonishing and eloquent voice towards architects who hardly dare
to leave their modernism-shells, rewrites the second half of the last
century's architectural history almost overweening. During a speech
for the New York Architectural League : "The worst enemy
of modern architecture is the conception of space solely in terms of
economical and technical requirements, indifferent for ideas about
the location...The origin of architecture is not the primitive hut,
the cave or the mythical "Adam's house in paradise". Before
he changed a pole into a column, before he piled stone after stone,
humankind laid a stone on the ground to distinguish a spot in the
middle of an unknown universe in order to recognize and stipulate it.
[p. 95] In a poetic way he denounces functionalism.
this paragraph I specially want to focus on Japan's capital, Tokyo.
Each metropolis has it's own characteristics. So in the interest of
this dispute's content it seems proper to me to discuss a real city
[as an example].
personal reason is, that I don't only live permanently in [West]
Japan -also being in the process of constructing a new house in the
very country-side [! ]- (9) , but I had four
times a shocking experience in connection with cities in this
in the early 80s, arriving from the Seto sea, seeing trams
others hastening to appointments, parcels being delivered, lazy
and more: a lively city functioning at all levels, I only
could cry in silence,
aware of what happened to this city in August 1945. The
Kind of the same I felt in Nagasaki and Tokyo, the latter being
almost totally. During time having got acquainted with Kobe, I only
my tears after a nightly telephone call in Amsterdam, that a large
part of the city
destroyed by the Great Hanshin Earthquake [ early morning 17 01 1995
than 6.000 persons and injuring many more.
disasters bring me to another mega disaster, about which occurrence
is no doubt, a
certain earthquake in Tokyo. It's government stimulates and organizes
inhabitants where shelters are, advice them to keep some water stock,
some food, a
and a flashlight and warning them not try to join their family.
I only can put the rhetorical question^ can anybody be prepared for
? My estimation is, that the chaos will be complete; no less. The
one's, the countless, manifold personal drama's and the material
damage is a
human and economical costs are multiple, just because of the density
inherent to a metropolis.
metropolis -as such- multiplies the misery.
operations will be highly in-sufficient and in-efficient.
such a Tokyo earthquake disaster will have a tremendous destructive
the world's financial dynamics.
the same metropolis is again most complicated and excessive
disaster will appear, may be slowly, but guaranteed. "Global
sea levels this century faster than previously expected," (10)
See levels could rise
cm. by 2100. That's not only pretty soon, but also double the
previous forecasts and
sign that we did not thoroughly understood this problem. A similar
implications was on my daily's front page (11)
is also a problem in another respect. "One problem is that while
access to water is
improving in rural areas, its availability in cities has declined in
many parts of the
world. This decline is worrisome, given the unstoppable trend toward
7) p. 270 True, Tokyo is no city in an developing country, but
it's water is not agreeable to drink and I am not convinced, that the
water supply can
continue on a still larger scale for a reasonable price. Drinking
water management world wide claims each year a huge
already changed it's capital several times. Why not now ? What on
earth makes the country's- and metropolis' governments do nothing,
except some [probably highly hypothetical] emergency-preparations?
Again: why is Tokyo in it's present manifestation necessary ? The
country's and metropolis' leaders cowardly stay inside their 'box',
ignoring the immense counter-productivity in many respects; just lazy
and irresponsible continuing the old path ['more-of-the-same' or,
when the 'solution' becomes the problem (5)].
such a metropolis necessary in terms of communicating with each other
is definitely untied from location; a lot of 'desk-work' too.
Tokyo a healthy / happy place for the majority of it's users ? Is a
healthy and happy
exclusively destined to the now-Tokyo ?
only uses 20 - 30% of it's territory. This small part is
expensive and hectic. Why not spread the functions,
together in the large centers ?
thesis is, that by spreading only advantages will be harvested.
hyper-metropolis is an anachronism.
harbor function could remain, of course.
insurance companies, stock-exchange and other financial
find a cheaper, safer and more natural surrounding,
national government, annex parliament and
ministries [not in
every country the
has it's seat in their national capital; the Netherlands for
universities and other educational institutions.
business offices could be wiser planned near their
art and some sport events could eventualy remain in
Tokyo, as might
a low percentage of privileged metropolis-users -whose opinions
should be neglected here- a metropolis, considered as a human
condition, is an attempt on humankind's existence. The users are put
into exile, into an alienating, extremely artificial surrounding,
refrained from their origin: nature, architects willingly cooperating
in depriving humans of their treasure. This sacrificial offering for
money and vanity's sake is an expression of disdain. Personal
pomposity and an excess of truly ugly buildings insult any eye. A
metropolis is more a curse than a blessing for humans. What's keeping
counter-productive situations going on and even make them worse ? My
answer is: indifference, this being a pandemic
James Martin's answer -though talking about another topic: not
solving global warming effectively- probably would be: apathy,
both explanations being pretty close to each other. "If
everybody was exited about solving the problems, it would work fine,
but that's not the case. It will take a catastrophe to get most
people interested -this is how things happen." "(,...)the
UN Declaration of Human Rights was drafted after the Holocaust."
After the horse has bolted the stable-door is locked. "We're
almost certainly going to get some kind of catastrophe in the next 20
years or so," (13)
explicit writing leads to parry alleged satisfaction statements of
metropolis-users on beforehand. I now take the liberty to freely use
some thoughts of Dawkins 14) As well as religious persons,
metropolitans probably suffer from a 'delusion', an
false belief a person sticks to notwithstanding a strong proof of the
opposite. If one person suffers from delusions, erroneous ideas, it's
called insanity, if more people suffer from it, one calls it
religion, loving one's country, the (latest) fashion[-hype] or
satisfaction. Back to inertia or Martin's apathy, this being "Not
necessarily depression. A lot of apathetic people are as happy as
pigs, watching reality TV shows and getting drunk of a Friday night."
it apathy, inertia, laxity, taking refuge in fantasy or indifference,
if people refuse, deny or ignore their rich potential to live a
quality-life in stead of running
from-here-to-there-and-visa-versa, they are a will-less prey for and
available to contempt of their opportunistic decision-makers,
addicted to their first-order-boxes; as-simple-as-that!
month I wrote an essay about the paradigm FICTION, being
irresponsible pandemic virus, which evil caused and causes
uncountable victims, leading to severe suffering all around the
planet and being an economical waste beyond explanation. 15)
Followers and their decision-makers -'leaders' being a too ironic
title- are marinated in FICTION, the primate under
activities and decisions. May be 'followers' are most to blame, given
the fact, that without 'followers': no 'leaders'.
me a beaker of wine,
so that I may wet my mind
and say something
getting time to bring my never ending litany and mantras to an end,
basically already repeating myself. Passion and a strong wish for
improvements are limited excuses for my tirade.
I am debating is, that a roof-garden is no nature, even not the
faintest [ironical] replacement of it: I argue, that a metropolis and
it's successor, the hyper-city, is a form of laziness,
first-order-thinking [more-of-the-same], perverting working and
living. I plead for a human scale. (17) No
responsible architect can
state anymore, that s/he makes a building and the urban-specialist
does the planning. This limiting framework is a severe
"Tokyo" as an equivalent to address the responsible persons
of all metropolis', I want to say: 'Tokyo', you just postpone crucial
decisions until nature breaks your city down [by a disaster]; you
have to respect nature and return to her. Natura mater et
feel rather skeptical hearing titles like 'eco-architecture',
'participation architecture' or 'community projects', not because of
their possible value of origin, but because of the vain and
opportunistic architect's easiness to fashionalize
attractive-sounding words, using them solely as 'honey'. To the same
range belong also those dead, devaluated terms as 'creative',
'modern', 'avant-garde', 'futuristic', 'renewal' and many more. The
choice -conscious or not- is between^ sensibility or barbarism /
disdain or intimacy / concrete [steel & glass] jungle or oasis
rich or poor.
(19) remembers his mother teaching him his
first 'pillar' [in life],
that nothing is impossible. This vitamin is the only relevant defense
against the many 'buts' society produces
being an alibi for and expression of a lack of courage, vision and
responsibility. "Manny", calling himself a
'space-planner', has a second pillar: aiming at excellence. This is
what we need. He describes his activities as providing "(....)working
and living environments to help people be more imaginative, creative
Though we should be most alert for
-service, I continue with a short anthology, touching
what deserves anybody's passion. About Ando [who has been called the
poet with concrete] (20) p.31 : "Vast areas
of the Awaji
Yumebutai complex serve no specific purpose, but lead visitors to a
heightened awareness of space, light, sound and architecture."
What I like here is the going back to our senses. Lebbeus Woods (8)
p. 225 put it in his way: "I am being in war with my
time, with history, with all authority, which seats in fixed and
fearsome forms." Forms as an expression of fear [or cowardice;
both closely related] should be banned. As is common knowledge: fear
is a bad adviser and a disgusting guest. Zumthor (8) p.
of "(....) doing that which is a matter of course, however
difficult..)", an inspiring and true task-description. Not less
attractive and putting the architect back on his feet: "Designing
a building, 'cost ten minutes -may be only five' "
[Massimiliano Fuksas, (8) p. 87] He guided
the Biennale of Venice
to "Less aesthetics, more ethic's." p.86
The planet needs
the poetic intuitions of Frank Lloyd Wright. Gregotti underlines my
pledge: p.28...) the landscape is the
primary given in architecture and
all buildings should emanate from this." p.95
with the landscape is also main theme of Guenter Behnisch p.27.
These are some of the signposts, which could lead us somewhere in
stead of nowhere.
war to 'sad architecture', to dullness, to which most 'spectacular'
to ego-mania of all burlesque decision-makers, to indifference,
should be high on the agendas.
ongoing planning in favor of hyper-cities is a multifarious disaster.
should weep or otherwise ...............
we want to make God laugh ?
him, what your intentions are.
a matter of fact this dispute started as an open letter to Toyoo
epicenter is the 'hyper-city' (3), >
inevitable, necessary or
thus addressing reflections to Ito-san in person as
well as too his colleagues and the interested public.
planet's population grows exponentially.
urbanization seems unstoppable.
should be gathered, well formulated questions.
this discussion concentrates on themes as fate, human mind's
addiction to the
and a responsible [read: human] environment.
are strongly challenged to take and show their
is a 'hyper-metropolis' "doing" to it's inhabitants ?
we have the proper vocabulary and points-of-view to cope with this
is a city ?
What is nowaday's realistic, advantageous
going on -like addicts- in the same treadmill, [custom becoming
be, [already is,] the problem. Ito offers a catch at a straw with
have become suspicious.
exemplary on the dissecting-table.
and apathy until the next catastrophe. Delusion and being happy as
to our senses.
architects and decision-makers.
we stop to make God laugh ?
pamphlet's first draught against 'urbanism unlimited' was released in
O T E S
Japan Times 30 Nov 2006 Return to 'real'
Mostra Internazionale di Architettura; la Biennale di Venezia www. labiennale.org
- The Japan Times 13 Dec 2006 'Time bomb' slums set to soar
in mew world
of cities! there will be more urban-than rural-dwellers for the first
time in history - Alister Doyle
Tibaijuka is head of the U. N. Human Settlements Program. See 3)
- Change, principles of problem
formation and problem resolution! Paul Watzlawick, John Weakland
& Richard Fisch. Norton 1974.
- 'House' is also such a word about
which everybody silently assumes, that it's meaning is well known, but
here follows a short inventory of meanings, which function it is to
question this matter of course.
roof ? A glass box ? A testimony of bad taste ? A showcase of power ?
The place were your father died ? A hole ? A barrier against the
world ? A love-nest ? A sleeping place ? An investment ? The heritage
of your parents ? An arbitrary address ? The place were your children
were born ? A place of silence ? A guarantee for quarrel ? A womb ?
An impossibility to relax ? The spot were your underpants are washed
and your shirts are ironed ? Warmth ? The bank's security for your
life-long mortgage ? A center of commotion ? There where you want to
die in the arms of your wife ?
history of world in 6 glasses! Tom Standage. Walker & Comp.
van nu! Kester Rattenbury, Robet Bevan & Kieran Long. Atrium
this paragraph I borrow quite some, but surely not all, vocabulary of
this Dutch edition! the English translations are my responsibility.
The final text also being my sole responsibility.
the architect's website under 'Landhuis'! pictures and bilingual text [
J. & E.] www.uchnet.net and my bilingual 'report' [Dutch &
Japan Times 16 Dec 2006 Climate models underestimate rising seas:
Japan Times 21 01 2007 the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate
[ I P C C ] states that the world temperatures will rise by 2.0 to
4.5 degrees Celsius by 2100, given the status quo. Such a temperature
rise could cause huge disruption to agriculture, trigger more floods,
heat waves and desertification and melt glaciers.
from 7), page 270: By around 2007, demographers estimate, more than
half of world's population will for the first time be living in cities;
humankind will have completed the six-thousand-year transition from
being a predominantly rural to a predominantly urban species. According
to figures from the International Water Management Institute, it would
cost an extra $ 1.7 billion a year beyond what is already being spent
to achieve the United Nations' desired improvement in access to water,
while improving sanitation would cost a further $ 9 billion or so a
year -a small fraction of the amount spent on bottled water in rich
9 Sep 2006 Agent for change - Liz
- NRC 3 Nov 2006 God is pas echt
wereldberoemde evolutiebioloog Richard Dawkins rekent hard af met
religie Rob van den Berg
pages A4, including a summary and notes. The articles I used are also
- cited in (7)
page 43. Aristophanes was a Greek comic poet (450 - 385 BCE)
own contributions to small scale, self-efficient communities of
'silbers' [in Japan]
in the country-side, i wrote, reacting on a small notice in the Kochi
Shimbun, October 26th, 2005.1 gave the project-idea the name GENKI
MURA; 10 pages. Articles I used are also available.
idea I formulated in November 2006: modules, easily to enlarge and to
be placed anywhere in the [Japanese] country-side. Easily to replace
elsewhere. Reasonable price, well isolated, eventualy also floating.
is mother as well as tutor [sensei].
Japan Times 20 012007 Personality profile
NOW ! ; Philip Jodidio. Taschen 2005.